This ultimate guide on forest classification will help you in understanding classification of forest on the basis of age, mode of regeneration, composition, ownership, objects of management & growing stock.

On The Basis Of Age

On the basis of age forests are classified into:
1. Even aged Forest
2. Uneven aged Forest

Even Aged Forest

Forest which are consisting of even aged trees ( trees of same age group) are called even aged forest. Even aged forest are also called regular forests. Plantation forest are true example of even aged forest.

In case of natural forest when rotation is more than 100 years difference upto 25 % of rotation is allowed.

Uneven Aged Forest

These forest are also called irregular forest. They are the forest in which trees of different age groups are present.

On the basis of Method of Regeneration

On the basis of method of regeneration forests are classified into:
1. High Forest
2. Coppice Forest

High Forest

The forest which are regenerated from seed are called high forest.

Coppice Forest

Forest which are regenerated by vegetative method like coppice shoot or some other vegetative part of the tree are called forest.

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On The Basis of Composition

On the basis of composition forests are classified into:
1.Pure Forest
2.Mixed Forest

Pure Forest

pure forest, classification of forest, forest classification
Pure Forest, Photo by Thomas Griesbeck on Unsplash

Pure Forest are those forest which are composed of almost entirely of one species, not less than 80%. These forest are called pure stand.

Mixed Forest

Forest which are composed of two or more than two tree species intermingled in the same canopy are called mixed forest.
Species of mixed forest can be classified as:

Principal Species: In mixed forest most important species either by frequency, volume or silviculture value are called principal species.

Accessory Species: In mixed forest species of less importance than principal species are called accessory species.

Auxiliary Species: Species of inferior quality or size and having less silviculture value or importance are called auxiliary species.

On The Basis of objects of Management

On the basis of composition forest can be classified into:
1.Production Forest
2.Protection Forest

3.Social Forest (farm forest, fuel forest, recreational forest)

Production Forest

The forest which are managed primarily for its produce are called production forest.

Protection Forest

The forest which are managed for protection purpose e.g. for ameliorating climate, checking soil erosion & floods, conserving soil & water and regulating stream flow etc. are called protection forest.

Social Forest

These forest are also production forest but the produce is utilized by society.

On The Basis of Ownership and Legal status

On the basis of ownership forests are classified into:
1.Government Forest
2.Private Forest
Forest owned by corporations, panchayats, societies and other agencies

Government Forest

Government forest are those forest which are owned by state. Government forest are further classified into:

  1. Reserved Forest
  2. Protected Forest
  3. Village Forest

Reserved Forest: A reserved forest is an area constituted under the provision of chapter of II of Indian Forest Act 1927. Reserved forest are subjected to complete degree of protection All the activities are prohibited unless permitted.

Protected Forest: A protected forest is an area subjected to limited degree of protection, constituted under the provision of chapter of IV Indian Forest Act 1927. In Protected forest all the activities are permitted unless prohibited.

Village Forest: A village forest is a sate forest assigned to village community under the provision of chapter of III of Indian Forest Act 1927.

Private Forest/Communal Forest

Private forest is not managed by a community, town, tribal authority or local government, the members of which share in the produce or proceeds. It is owned by an individual or corporate.

On The Basis of Growing Stock

On the basis of growing stock, the forests are classified into:
1.Normal Forest
2.Abnormal Forest

Normal Forest

A forest is an ideal forest with regards to growing stock, age class distribution and increment and from which annual and periodic removal of produce equals to the increment.

Abnormal Forest

Abnormal forest is one in which growing stock, age class distribution and increment either in excess or in deficit than the normal forest.

FAQ’s On Forest Classification

Mention the types of forests in India?

In India there are mainly 5 types of forests and they are Moist tropical, Dry tropical, Alpine, Montane temperate & sub-tropical forest.

What is the implication of land being classified as private forest?

Generally private forest is used to obtain useful materials such as timber and other forest products.

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