Hi agriculturists, welcome to the soil science test series. Read all the questions very carefully before attempting. Today’s test series consists of 50 questions on soil science topics based on the previous year’s questions of the Licensure Examination of Agriculturists. Hence, attempting these questions will help you improve your skills for the upcoming examination.

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Agriculture Questions Set 5 Soil Science

Agriculture Questions Set-5

1. The layer of soil composed of organic material, primarily decayed plant and animal residues, is called:

  • Humus
  • Clay
  • Sand
  • Silt

2. The process of soil formation from parent material through physical, chemical, and biological processes is known as:

  • Soil genesis
  • Soil conservation
  • Soil texture
  • Soil compaction

3. Which soil horizon is typically composed of organic material and is known as the topsoil?

  • O horizon
  • A horizon
  • B horizon
  • C horizon

4. The ability of soil to retain water for plant use is referred to as:

  • Water holding capacity
  • Drainage capacity
  • Soil porosity
  • Soil fertility

5. Which of the following soil types has the highest water retention capacity?

  • Sand
  • Silt
  • Clay
  • Gravel

6. Soil pH measures the concentration of:

  • Hydrogen ions
  • Oxygen ions
  • Nitrogen ions
  • Carbon dioxide

7. The term for soil particles’ arrangement and the resulting pore spaces is:

  • Soil texture
  • Soil structure
  • Soil consistency
  • Soil density

8. Which element is essential for chlorophyll synthesis in plants and is often a limiting nutrient in soils?

  • Nitrogen
  • Phosphorus
  • Potassium
  • Magnesium

9. The process by which nutrients are washed from the soil by rain or irrigation is called:

  • Leaching
  • Erosion
  • Salinization
  • Compaction

10. The capacity of soil to exchange cations with plant roots is referred to as:

  • Cation exchange capacity (CEC)
  • Soil fertility
  • Soil pH
  • Soil texture

11. The measure of the volume of pore spaces in soil is known as:

  • Soil porosity
  • Soil texture
  • Soil structure
  • Soil bulk density

12. A soil amendment commonly added to increase the pH of acidic soils is:

  • Lime
  • Gypsum
  • Sulfur
  • Organic compost

13. Soil microorganisms that convert atmospheric nitrogen into a form usable by plants are known as:

  • Nitrogen fixers
  • Decomposers
  • Pathogens
  • Mycorrhizae

14. The horizon that consists of partially disintegrated and weathered parent material is the:

  • C horizon
  • A horizon
  • B horizon
  • O horizon

15. The dark-colored soil horizon rich in organic matter is the:

  • A horizon
  • B horizon
  • C horizon
  • E horizon

16. The process of mixing and churning soil particles by organisms such as earthworms is called:

  • Bioturbation
  • Compaction
  • Erosion
  • Deposition

17. Soil texture is classified based on the proportion of:

  • Sand, silt, and clay
  • Organic matter and minerals
  • Water and air
  • Gravel and pebbles

18. Which type of soil erosion occurs when raindrops dislodge soil particles?

  • Splash erosion
  • Sheet erosion
  • Rill erosion
  • Gully erosion

19. The main factor influencing soil formation is:

  • Parent material
  • Climate
  • Topography
  • All of the above

20. A soil property that affects root penetration and water movement is:

  • Soil structure
  • Soil texture
  • Soil color
  • Soil pH

21. The mineral soil particle size that feels gritty and is larger than silt and clay is:

  • Sand
  • Silt
  • Clay
  • Humus

22. Which soil conservation practice involves planting crops in rows parallel to the land’s contours?

  • Contour farming
  • Strip cropping
  • Crop rotation
  • Terracing

23. The horizon most affected by leaching and accumulation of clay and iron is:

  • B horizon
  • A horizon
  • C horizon
  • O horizon

24. Which soil nutrient is crucial for energy transfer and photosynthesis in plants?

  • Phosphorus
  • Potassium
  • Nitrogen
  • Calcium

25. Soil’s ability to support plant growth without permanent degradation is known as:

  • Soil fertility
  • Soil resilience
  • Soil stability
  • Soil productivity

26. Which soil amendment is used to improve soil structure and increase organic matter content?

  • Compost
  • Sand
  • Gravel
  • Salt

27. The fine, powdery material that forms from the weathering of feldspar is:

  • Clay
  • Silt
  • Sand
  • Gravel

28. The horizon often referred to as subsoil, which accumulates leached materials from above, is the:

  • B horizon
  • A horizon
  • C horizon
  • O horizon

29. The term for the permanent removal of soil from a location by wind, water, or human activity is:

  • Erosion
  • Leaching
  • Compaction
  • Deposition

30. Soil organic matter is primarily composed of:

  • Decayed plant and animal residues
  • Sand, silt, and clay
  • Minerals and nutrients
  • Water and air

31. The process by which soil microorganisms break down organic matter into simpler substances is:

  • Decomposition
  • Mineralization
  • Nitrification
  • Denitrification

32. The process of converting atmospheric nitrogen into forms usable by plants is called:

  • Nitrogen fixation
  • Nitrification
  • Denitrification
  • Mineralization

33. Soil erosion that occurs in thin, uniform layers and removes the topsoil is known as:

  • Sheet erosion
  • Rill erosion
  • Gully erosion
  • Wind erosion

34. The soil layer that is rich in minerals leached from above and often contains clay is the:

  • B horizon
  • A horizon
  • C horizon
  • O horizon

35. The process by which water moves downward through the soil, carrying dissolved substances, is known as:

  • Percolation
  • Capillary action
  • Evaporation
  • Transpiration

36. The percentage of soil particles classified as sand, silt, and clay is referred to as:

  • Soil texture
  • Soil structure
  • Soil profile
  • Soil horizon

37. The practice of rotating different crops in the same field to maintain soil health is known as:

  • Crop rotation
  • Monoculture
  • Contour farming
  • Intercropping

38. The natural process by which soil is formed and developed over time is called:

  • Pedogenesis
  • Erosion
  • Weathering
  • Compaction

39. Which soil component provides essential nutrients and enhances water retention?

  • Organic matter
  • Sand
  • Silt
  • Clay

40. The measure of the acidity or alkalinity of soil is referred to as:

  • Soil pH
  • Soil texture
  • Soil structure
  • Soil fertility

41. The process by which soil particles and aggregates are pressed together, reducing pore space, is called:

  • Compaction
  • Aggregation
  • Percolation
  • Saturation

42. The main nutrient required for root development and energy transfer in plants is:

  • Phosphorus
  • Nitrogen
  • Potassium
  • Calcium

43. The type of soil erosion characterized by small channels forming on the soil surface is:

  • Rill erosion
  • Sheet erosion
  • Gully erosion
  • Wind erosion

44. The dark, organic material formed from decayed plant and animal remains is called:

  • Humus
  • Clay
  • Silt
  • Sand

45. The term for soil particles carried and deposited by wind is:

  • Aeolian
  • Fluvial
  • Colluvial
  • Alluvial

46. The type of soil erosion that results in the formation of large, deep channels is:

  • Gully erosion
  • Rill erosion
  • Sheet erosion
  • Splash erosion

47. The soil layer that is rich in organic material and supports plant growth is the:

  • A horizon
  • B horizon
  • C horizon
  • D horizon

48. Which soil property is affected by the presence of iron, organic matter, and moisture?

  • Soil color
  • Soil structure
  • Soil texture
  • Soil pH

49. The practice of planting trees and shrubs to reduce wind erosion is known as:

  • Windbreaks
  • Cover cropping
  • Strip cropping
  • Contour farming

50. The process by which soil organic matter is converted into simpler compounds by microorganisms is:

  • Decomposition
  • Erosion
  • Compaction
  • Leaching

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