If you are a farmer, agriculturist or a student who is looking for information on marigold farming, then you are at the right page. In this article we will discuss about marigold production, varieites, climate, soil, field preparation, seed rate, plantation, fertilizers, irrigation, pests & disease management, harvesting and post harvest management practices.
In floriculture, marigold is one of most profitale crops in the world. A farmer in Jharkhand is earning up to 1.5 lakhs Indian rupees per acre by cultivating marigold. Hence, as a farmer, if you have land suitable for the cultivation, then you can follow this guide to plan marigold plantation successfully.
To earn more farmers can do value addition in marigold and sell the processed agriculture products in the market, instead of selling cut or loose value flowers.
Table of Contents
Marigold or Tagetes is a genus of around 50 species of annual and perennial herbaceous flowering plants. Plant height can vary from 0.1 to 2.2 meters high and flowers generally come in shades of golden, orange, yellow and white. For horticulture purpose, we plant them as annuals.
You can plant marigold as companions because they can repel common pests and nematodes. Use them as companion plant with rice, tomato, eggplant, chilli pepper, tobacco, etc. However, avoid planting them near legume crops such as pulses.
Marigold are cultivated for variety of purposes. It can be used to make garlands, bouquets, medicines, skin care products, essential oils, herbal teas, pesticides, etc. Hence, you can contact industries connected to these products to sell your produce. Or you can make some of these products on your own, do branding to sell them in the market.
Origin Of Marigold
Wild marigold (Tagetes minuta), also called Peruvian marigold, is native to South America, particularly Peru. African marigolds (Tagetes erecta), often known as Aztec marigolds or American marigolds, are native to Mexico and Central America. While French Marigolds (Tagetes patula) are believed to have originated in Mexico and Central America.
Area & Production
India, China, United States of America, Europe and Pakistan are the leading producers of marigold in the world. India is not only the leading producer but it is also the leading exporter of marigold in the world with 4,270 shipments followed by Thailand and China. Around 713,210 tonnes of marigold was produced from 2021 to 2022 in India.
NEXT: Top 10 Marigold Producing States In India
Marigold Farming Guide
You will need to follow these guidelines on marigold farming very carefully to get optimum yield.
Climate & Temperature
Marigold crop performs well in a milder climate. The optimum temperature range for getting the best result is between 18 to 20o Celsius. However, the crop can tolerate temperatures up to 35o Celsius. But, if the temperature goes above 35o Celsius, then it can restrict the plant growth and flower size which ultimately results in poor yield.
The average annual rainfall of 100 to 150 centimeter is good for the growth of marigold plants.
Farmers can cultivate marigolds in a wide range of soils. But well-drained, sandy loam soils with pH around 5.6 to 6.5 are considered ideal for its cultivation. French or dwarf marigolds grow best in light soils while African or tall marigolds grow best in soils that are well-drained, rich in organic matter and have good water-holding capacity.
Types & Varieties Of Marigold
There are mainly two types of marigold that are planted for commercial purposes, they are French marigold (dwarf) and African marigold (Tall). Due to large stems and flower heads, African marigolds are considered best for cut flower purpose. While French marigolds are mainly cultivated for ornamental purposes, to prepare dyes, essential oils, etc.
|Serial Number||Country Name||Type||Variety|
|1.||India||French Marigold||Arka Honey, Arka Pari, Arka Madhu, Red Brocade, Rusty Red, Butter Scotch, Valencia, Succana.|
|African Marigold||Pusa Narangi Gainda, Pusa Basanthi Gainda (IARI varieties), MDU 1, Giant Double African Orange, Giant Double African Yellow, Crackerjack, Climax, Doubloon, Golden Age, Chrysanthemum Charm, Crown of Gold, Spun Gold.|
|2.||United States Of America||French Marigold||Alumia vanilla cream, Aurora orange, Bolero, Bonanza deep orange, Bonita mixed, Golden boy, Ground control, Janie Deep Orange.|
|African Marigold||Antigua Orange, Antigua Primrose, Antigua Yellow, Discovery Yellow, Double Eagle, Inca Orange, Inca Primerose, Indian Yellow, Mesa Gold, Proud Yellow, Safari.|
Seed Rate & Sowing Time
You can propagate marigolds from seeds. For one acre of land around 600 to 800 grams of marigold seeds are sufficient and for one hectare you will need around 1 to 1.5 Kilograms of seeds for sowing in the nursery depending on the type and variety of the marigold.
Sowing Time Of Marigold
You can sow marigold seeds three times a year, that is, rainy, winter and summer seasons. Here is the table of sowing time, transplantation time and flowering seasons of marigold accordingly.
|Sowing Time||Transplanting Time||Flowering Time|
|January to February||February to March||Summer|
It is important to note that, if you are cultivating marigold in a polyhouse, then you do not need to depend on external climatic condition.
Nursery Bed Preparation
To sow seeds of marigold, you need to prepare nursery beds. Prepare nursery beds that should be 75 centimeters wide and 15 to 20 centimeters high. Mix organic manure such as dung manure or Farm Yard Manure in the soil. You can also apply fungicides before sowing of seeds. Sow marigold seeds in rows at a spacing of 5 centimeters and depth of 3 centimeters for ideal germination.
After sowing of seeds, give light irrigation and cover them with paddy straw. Keep checking the moisture of the soil and irrigate if necessary. Within 5 to 7 days marigold seeds will start germinating and in nearly one month they will become ready for transplantation.
Field should be plowed well to remove all the debris, weeds and clods. You can prepare ridge and furrows system if your region is prone to heavy rainfall. During the field preparation, you need to mix 40 tonnes of Farm Yard Manure per hectare into the soil. Also add a basal doze of 125 kilograms of Nitrogen, 100 kilograms of P2O5, and 100 kilograms of K2O per hectare at the time of field preparation.
Transplantation & Spacing
After preparing the field for plantation, transplant marigolds on the ridges. For African marigold follow spacing of 40 × 30 centimeters and for French marigold 20 × 20 centimeters for getting optimum yield. Give light irrigation immediately after transplantation of marigold seedlings.
The frequency and amount of irrigation water mainly depends on climate and soil type. In heavy soils you do not need to irrigate frequently but in light soils you need to irrigate regularly. Make sure to avoid waterlogging in the marigold farm as it can promote fungal diseases and damage your crop. If you are cultivating in sandy loam soil, then irrigate once a week from September to March.
But during hot, dry summer, you need to irrigate once after every 4 to 5 days to maintain adequate moisture in the soil.
At the time of field preparation adding 40 tonnes of Farm Yard Manure or dung manure helps in improving crop growth. 45 days after transplantation apply 45 Kilograms of nitrogen per hectare. You can use neem cake fertilizer, poultry waste to supply nitrogen to your crop organically.
You can also adopt fertigation method to apply fertilizers in the field. The Recommended Dose of Fertilizer (RDF) is 90: 90:75 kilograms NPK per hectare. 75% of this doze should be applied through fertigation water. At the time of plantation you can also apply biofertilizers such as Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria at the rate of 2 grams per hectare.
On 30th and 45th days after transplantation, apply micronutrients through foliar spray of 0.5% FeSO4 + 0.5% ZnSO4.
Weeding & Pinching
30 to 45 days after transplanting, i.e., before bud formation, pinch out the terminal portion of the plant to promote branching. Increase in number will result in increased yield. Weeding should be done as necessary to control the growth of weeds in the farm. Generally 3 to 4 weedings during the crop growth period is sufficient.
Pests of Marigold
Follow these guidelines to control the pests of marigold.
|Serial Number||Pest||Control Measures|
|1.||Mealy Bugs||Spray prophenophos or dimethoate 2ml per litre, or Spray Fish oil rasin soap 25gram per litre.|
|2.||Aphids||Spray of Monocrotophos 0.05% or Phosphamidon 0.02% at 10 to 15 days interval.|
|3.||Thrips||Use yellow sticky trap 20 per acre or Fipronil 20 ml per litre.|
|4.||Spider Mites||Spray Kelthane 1 ml per litre of water.|
|5.||Beetles & Weevils||Spray Rogour or Monocrotophos 2 ml per litre of water.|
Diseases Of Marigold
Follow these guidelines to control diseases of marigold.
|Serial Number||Diseases||Control Measures|
|1.||Powdery Mildew||Spray Sulfex 3 grams per litre of water.|
|2.||Wilt & Stem Rot||Treat soil with Captan, Mancozeb or Metalaxyl.|
|3.||Collar Rot||Can be prevented by soil sterilization or by using healthy seedlings.|
|4.||Leaf Spot||Spray fungicide.|
|5.||Flower Bud Rot||Spray Mancozeb 2 grams per litre of water.|
Harvesting Of Marigold
Nearly after 2.5 months after transplantation of marigold, it will become ready for harvesting. Before harvesting, give light irrigation to increase the shelf life of the flowers. During morning hours when flowers are completely open, you can harvest marigolds. Collect harvested flowers in polythene bags or bamboo baskets for carrying them to another location.
Yield Of Marigold
If you plant French marigold, then you can get yield up to 8-12 tonnes per hectare or if you plant African marigolds, then you can get yield up to 11-18 tonnes per hectare.