Centre of origin-Native plant in Mesoamerica and tropical America
Table of Contents
Guava is a very popular fruit.
Guavas are evergreen, shallow-rooted shrubs or small trees that grow to 33 ft in height, with spreading branches.
It is a hardy crop(i.e. it can survive as low as 5°C)
Guava leaf extract may even help in treating acne.
Guava is one of the richest sources of vitamin-C.
It can also prevent the growth and development of cancer cells.
Enhances immunity, helps relieve in painful menstruation.
It is an ideal fruit for nutritional security due to its high nutritional value.
Major producing countries are China, India, Brazil, Spain, Mexico, Italy, Indonesia.
Guava production in 2019 in India is 18.8 million metric tons and in world 46.5 million metric tons.
Guava trees grow rapidly and fruit in 2 to 4 years from seed. They live till 30 to 40 years but productivity declines after the 15th year.
Area and distribution
The area under guava is about 0.15 million hectares.
India ranks 1st in guava production followed by China.
Although guava can be grown throughout India, it is most successful in Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh.
Approximately 501,600 acres are dedicated to the production of guava in India.
Guava is cultivated on varied types of soils-heavy clay to very light sandy soils.
Very good quality guavas are produced in river-basins.
It can grow well in the soil pH range of 4.5- 8.2.
Maximum concentration of its feeding roots is available up to 25 cm soil depth.
The topsoil should be quite rich to provide enough nutrients for accelerating new growth which bears fruits.
Climate and temperature
Guava is successfully grown under tropical and subtropical climate.
The quality of the fruits is better in areas having distinct winters, therefore, guava grown near Allahabad is famous for the best quality fruits.
Although guava tolerates drought, protective irrigation facilities are required.
It grows best with an annual rainfall around 1000 mm restricted between June and September.
The optimum temperature for germination of guava is 20-28°C.
In winters the temperature must not fall less than 3°C (remember that guava is not tolerant to frost)
Guava prefers full day sunshine and they are drought tolerant as well.
Guava can be propagated by seeds as well as by vegetative means.
Growing guava from cuttings
Guava can be obtained through layering, grafting, cutting and budding.
Its propagation by cuttings under ordinary condition is not successful.
It is only successful under intermittent mist conditions with the aid of rooting hormones like IBA and NAA.
Growing guava from seeds
Seed should not be in the dormant stage.
Press one seed into the center of the pot with your finger. Be sure to cover the seed with a bit of soilless mixture.
Water the seeds with a misting spray and place the container in a warm place with temperatures around(18°C.) or above.
Transplant the seedlings to pots when they have 2-4 sets of leaves, then move them outdoors.
If spacing is 1.5 m × 3.0 m(plant × row) the farm can accommodate 2222 plants per hectare.
If spacing is 3.0 m × 3.0 m(plant × row) the farm can accommodate 1111 plants per hectare.
If spacing is 3.0 m × 6.0 m(plant × row) the farm can accommodate 555 plants per hectare.
Method of seeding
One year shoots are used for obtaining 20-25 cm of cuttings. These cuttings are dipped in 200 ppm of IBA solution for 24 hours and then planted into the soil beds.
Seeds should be planted at depth of 2× the width or diameter.
100 gm. of guava can fulfil 14% of your daily fibre requirement. Guava is a good source of vitamins A and C, copper, folate, and fibre. It contains antioxidants such as beta carotene and lycopene, as well as iron, B vitamins, potassium, zinc, and phosphorus.
Guava provides 68 kcal of energy.
Guava provides 9% of potassium.
Guava provides 26% of copper.
A fertilizer dose of 600 g nitrogen and 400 g of Potassium is necessary in the northern region it varies with the places due to surrounding environment and climatic conditions.
Yearly average water requirement of guava was estimated to be 206 mm excluding effective rainfall.
In an experiment, it is observed that a drip irrigation system provides greater yield than the ring basin method.
The lowest yield was observed in the ring basin irrigation system.
We can use different cultural operation for controlling weeds i.e. Hand-picking, Burning, etc.
These methods are to be selected according to the place and availability of required material, area of orchard and so many different factors.
The chemical control of weeds in guava can be done by spraying of basal painting with ester formulations of 2,4,5-T is the best method of chemical control.
Aditya Abhishek has completed Bachelor Of Science in Agriculture from SDSUV, Uttarakhand. He focuses on learning and delivering knowledge on Agriculture and Home Gardening. He created Agriculture Review as a common platform for all nature enthusiast to learn better practices of agriculture, gardening & shop quality products & services.