The major difference between agro based and mineral based industry is in the source of their raw materials. Agriculture-based industries such as cotton textiles, sugar mills, silk, oil, etc. source their raw materials from agricultural raw products that are plant-based and animal-based. While mineral based industries source their raw material from mineral ores.
Some examples of mineral-based industries are the iron and steel industry, copper smelting industry, aluminum industry, cement industry, etc. While agriculture-based industries help in fulfilling, food and cloth demand, mineral-based industries help in the infrastructural development of the country. Both industries have their importance and we can not compare which one is more important.
But one thing is clear, it was the development of agriculture and agriculture-based industries that led to the development of other industries in the world. Since the second agricultural revolution, soon after which industrialization happened, a lot has changed in the world.
Cargill Inc. is the largest agri-based industry in the world with reported revenues of $114,600 million for the fiscal year ended June 2021. While Amman mineral is one of the best-performing mineral-based industries in the world. In India, the Iron and Steel industry is the largest mineral-based industry.