agriculture review

Who Introduced Ryotwari System In India

by aditya abhishek


Ryotwari system was introduced by Sir Thomas Munro in 1820. He was the Governor of Madras. This system was practiced in Madras, Bombay, Assam & Coorg provinces. 

Land Ownership

Unlike zamindari system, in Ryotwari system, the individual cultivator or ryot has the ownership of the land that he cultivates.

Tax Collection

Under this system taxes were collected directly by the government officials from the farmers. In wetlands tax rates were 60% while in dryland it were 50%. 

Revenue Assessment

The revenue in the Ryotwari System was  assessed based on the quality of the land, the crops grown, & the prevailing market rates.


The tenure of the land under this System was temporary & subject to revision at periodic intervals. This allowed for the British government to adjust the revenue rates.


It provided individual ownership rights to the cultivator, reducing the intermediary role of the zamindars, & encouraged cultivation.


High rates of revenue charged by the government, the lack of security of tenure for the ryots, & the absence of support from the government for the cultivation were major drawbacks. 

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