by aditya abhishek
When bodies of water, such as lakes, rivers, & oceans, become overloaded with nutrients, particularly nitrogen & phosphorus which leads to increased algae growth is Eutrophication.
Human activities such as extensive agriculture, urbanization, and untreated wastewater released into water streams are primary source of eutrophication.
Chemical fertilizers used in agriculture have high amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus, which leaches into nearby water bodies. It leads to water contamination & growth of algae.
At first, this growth can be beneficial, as it provides food & habitat for fish and other aquatic life. However, if the growth continues then it leads to a phenomenon known as an algal bloom.
After algal bloom, algae die & gets decomposed by bacteria that consume oxygen present in the water. Hence BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand) increases.
This can be particularly harmful to fish and other aquatic life that depend on oxygen to survive. Some fungi also produces toxins that are harmful for humans.
It can also lead to the growth of invasive species, which can outcompete native species & disrupt the natural balance of the ecosystem.
There are multiple approach such as precision application of fertilizer and conservation tillage can help in reducing the effect of eutophication.
Improving wastewater treatment can help reduce the amount of nutrients that enter the water from human sources. Restoring wetlands and other natural habitats that can help absorb excess nutrients.
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