by aditya abhishek
Soil is a 3-dimensional biologically active, porus, natural body present on upper layer of Earth's surface. It is essential for growth of plants & other organisms.
Soil formation takes place in two phases, 1st phase is the breakdown & decomposition of rocks & minerals and 2nd is formation of true soil by soil forming factors.
Physical, chemical, & biological weathering agents plays a vital role in breakdown and decomposition of rocks.
Change in temperature, action of water, wind, freezing, sudden wetting & drying, electric thunders helps in breakdown of rocks.
Due to hydration, hydrolysis, solution, carbonation, oxidation and reduction chemical composition and physical properties changes.
Action of humans, animals, roots of higher plants, and microorganisms result in disintegration and decomposition of rocks & minerals.
The end product of weathering of rocks & minerals is regolith, which is unconsolidated residues. Is is converted into true soil by soil forming factors.
According to Jenny, there are two types of soil forming factors, Active and Passive soil forming factors. Relative influence of these factors determine soil property.
Active factors are climate and biosphere, while passive factors are parent material, topography, and Time.
Basic and Specific Pedogenic process plays a crucial role in formation of true soil. Basic process include addition of water, minerals, translocation, and transformation of soil.
Humification, Elluviation, Illuviation, Calcification, Gypsification, and argillation helps in true soil formation.
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