agriculture review

How Soil Formation Takes Place On Earth!

by aditya abhishek

Soil is a 3-dimensional biologically active, porus, natural body present on upper layer of Earth's surface. It is essential for growth of plants & other organisms.

What Is Soil?

Soil formation takes place in two phases, 1st phase is the breakdown & decomposition of rocks & minerals and 2nd is formation of true soil by soil forming factors. 

Soil Formation

Physical, chemical, & biological weathering agents plays a vital role in breakdown and decomposition of rocks. 

Weathering Of Rocks

Change in temperature, action of water, wind, freezing, sudden wetting & drying, electric thunders helps in breakdown of rocks.

Physical Weathering

Due to hydration, hydrolysis, solution, carbonation, oxidation and reduction chemical composition and physical properties changes. 

Chemical Weathering

Action of humans, animals, roots of higher plants, and microorganisms result in disintegration and decomposition of rocks & minerals. 

Biological Weathering

The end product of weathering of rocks & minerals is regolith, which is unconsolidated residues. Is is converted into true soil by soil forming factors. 


According to Jenny, there are two types of soil forming factors, Active and Passive soil forming factors. Relative influence of these factors determine soil property.  

Soil Forming Factors

Active factors are climate and biosphere, while passive factors are parent material, topography, and Time. 


Basic and Specific Pedogenic process plays a crucial role in formation of true soil. Basic process include addition of water, minerals, translocation, and transformation of soil.

Soil Forming Process

Humification, Elluviation, Illuviation, Calcification, Gypsification, and argillation helps in true soil formation. 

Pedoginic Process

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