soybean-cultivation-guide

Origin: Southeast Asia
Chromosome number: 2n= 40
Family: Leguminosae
Order: Fabales
Class: Dicotyledons
Kingdom: Plantae




Introduction

  • Soybean is an oilseed crop.
  • Soybeans are a rich source of protein, minerals, and vitamins.
  • Protein content of soybean is 40% and its oil content is 20%.
  • Soybean contains Omega 3 fatty acids, it has complete protein that’s why it is a good source of protein for bodybuilders.
  • Soybean contains fibers, minerals like calcium, magnesium, selenium and iron, vitamin B12.
  • Soybean can be consumed or eaten as soy chunks, it is also used to prepare tofu which has a high content of protein, soy milk, etc.
  • Soybean has no cholesterol and has very low-fat content.
  • Soybean is one of the major source of vegetable oil in the world.
  • Soybean is popularly known as the Golden Bean.
  • Nowadays soybean is also used to make biodiesel.





Area and Distribution

  • Soybean is cultivated in Argentina, Brazil, United States.
  • The United States is the largest producer of soybean crops which accounts for 34% of total soybean production in the world. Brazil stands at second position with having 27% of total production and Argentina comes in third position with 20% of the global soybean production.
  • China accounts only for 7% of global soybean production while India accounts for 4% of total soybean production in the world.
  • China stands at 4th and India at the 5th position for the production of soybean in the world.
  • The total production of soybean in the world is 334, 894, 085 metric tonnes(2016) and in India it is 14,008,000 metric tonnes.
  • The area under soybean cultivation is estimated to be around 9.73 M hectares.





Soybean Cultivation Guide

soybean cultivation, soybean farming,

Soil Requirements

  • Soybean could be easily grown in any kind of soil but it shows best results in clay loam soils with good drainage.
  • Waterlogging should be avoided for the proper growth of soybean crops.
  • Soil pH of 6 to 6.5 is considered ideal for plant growth, however pH till 7.5 is also good.
  • Soybean can tolerate salt concentration to moderate level.




Climate and Temperature

  • Soybean crops can withstand both hot and cool temperatures but its growth decreases in extreme high and low temperatures.
  • For germination soybean crop requires temperature in the range of 15 to 32 degree C.
  • Soybean performs well in a warm and moist climate.
  • Ideal soil temperature is considered to be 15.5 degrees C or above for the growth of soybean crops.
  • Flowering is delayed due to low temperatures in soybean crops.
  • Temperature ranging from 15 to 30 degrees C is good for the growth and development of soybean crops.
  • Soybean can tolerate drought for a short period and requires at least 400 mm of rainfall during growth.
  • However, it is required to maintain moisture during germination, flowering, and pod formation.
  • Soybean crop grows rapidly in warm temperature.




Seed Rate

  • Seed rate of soybean mainly depends on three factors

germination percentage,

seed size and 

sowing time.

  • For early sowing, seed rate: 70 – 80 Kg/hectare
  • For late sowing, seed rate: 100 – 120 Kg/hectare.



Field Preparation

  • Fine-textured with less number of clods is considered ideal for the cultivation of soybean crop.
  • Land should be prepared and leveled with the following process:

one deep plowing with a moldboard plow

Then two harrowing or plowing with local plow.

  • Drainage channels should be prepared for removing excess water from the field to prevent waterlogging conditions in the field.




Method of Seeding

  • Soybean seeds should be treated with fungicides 24 hours before sowing.
  • Captan or Thiram @ 3gram per Kg  
  • Soybean seeds could be sown in lines. You can use a seed drill for sowing.
  • Plant to plant distance should be maintained and it should be between 4 to 5 cm.
  • seed could be sown 3 to 4 cm deep in the soil but sowing depth should not exceed 4 cm.




Fertilizers

  • Application of 15 to 20 tonnes FYM( Farm Yard Manure) or any organic manure per hectare before sowing is considered good for soybean growth.
  • N, P and K i.e. Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium requirement are as follow

20 Kg Nitrogen, 80 Kg Phosphorus, and 40 Kg Potassium per hectare. They could be applied through basal dressing.

  • 40 Kg of sulfur should also be applied in the form of gypsum @ 220 Kg/hectare.
  • However local soil testing and considered are preferred best to meet the nutritional need of a crop.




Irrigation

  • The first application of water should be given just after the sowing of seeds of soybean.
  • Second irrigation should be applied 3 DAS ( Days After Sowing).
  • After that irrigate the field at an interval of 7 to 10 days in summer. During winter soybean crop does not need much water and you can irrigate the field at an interval of 10 to 15 days regularly.



Weed Management

  • Major weeds of soybean crops are:

Amaranthus spinosus, Brachiaria reptans, Cleome gynanadra, Phyllanthus niruri, Trianthema portulacastrum etc.

  • First few weeks, generally field gets weeds infestation that’s why it is very important to maintain field sanitization to control the growth of weeds.
  • Hand weeding could be practiced 30 to 45 DAS
  • Application of PRE Herbicides such as Fluchloralin, Acetochlor, etc, and PPI herbicides such as Trifluralin, Lactofen, Alachlor are efficient to control weed infestation in the field.




Harvesting

  • When pods become dry and leaves seems yellow in the entire field, the crop is ready to be harvested.
  • At this stage harvest the crop with the help of a sickle.




Yield

  • Average yield of 18 to 35 quintals/ hectare is obtained in soybean crops.

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