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soybean crop
Soybean crop

Soybean (Glycine max)
Origin: Southeast Asia
Chromosome number: 2n= 40
Family: Leguminosae
Order: Fabales
Class: Dicotyledons
Kingdom: Plantae

  • Soybean is an oilseed crop.
  • Soybeans are a rich source of protein, minerals, and vitamins.
  • Protein content of soybean is 40% and its oil content is 20%.
  • Soybean contains Omega 3 fatty acids, it has complete protein that’s why it is a good source of protein for bodybuilders.
  • Soybean contains fibers, minerals like calcium, magnesium, selenium and iron, vitamin B12.
  • Soybean can be consumed or eaten as soy chunks, it is also used to prepare tofu which has a high content of protein, soy milk, etc.
  • Soybean has no cholesterol and has very low-fat content.
  • Soybean is one of the major source of vegetable oil in the world.
  • Soybean is popularly known as the Golden Bean.
  • Nowadays soybean is also used to make biodiesel.
Area and Distribution
  • Soybean is cultivated in Argentina, Brazil, United States.
  • The United States is the largest producer of soybean crops which accounts for 34% of total soybean production in the world. Brazil stands at second position with having 27% of total production and Argentina comes in third position with 20% of the global soybean production.
  • China accounts only for 7% of global soybean production while India accounts for 4% of total soybean production in the world.
  • China stands at 4th and India at the 5th position for the production of soybean in the world.
  • The total production of soybean in the world is 334, 894, 085 metric tonnes(2016) and in India it is 14,008,000 metric tonnes.
  • The area under soybean cultivation is estimated to be around 9.73 M hectares.
Soil Requirements
  • Soybean could be easily grown in any kind of soil but it shows best results in clay loam soils with good drainage.
  • Waterlogging should be avoided for the proper growth of soybean crops.
  • Soil pH of 6 to 6.5 is considered ideal for plant growth, however pH till 7.5 is also good.
  • Soybean can tolerate salt concentration to moderate level.
Climate and Temperature

  • Soybean crops can withstand both hot and cool temperatures but its growth decreases in extreme high and low temperatures.
  • For germination soybean crop requires temperature in the range of 15 to 32 degree C.
  • Soybean performs well in a warm and moist climate.
  • Ideal soil temperature is considered to be 15.5 degrees C or above for the growth of soybean crops.
  • Flowering is delayed due to low temperatures in soybean crops.
  • Temperature ranging from 15 to 30 degrees C is good for the growth and development of soybean crops.
  • Soybean can tolerate drought for a short period and requires at least 400 mm of rainfall during growth.
  • However, it is required to maintain moisture during germination, flowering, and pod formation.
  • Soybean crop grows rapidly in warm temperature.
Seed Rate
  • Seed rate of soybean mainly depends on three factors
germination percentage,
seed size and 
sowing time.
  • For early sowing, seed rate: 70 – 80 Kg/hectare
  • For late sowing, seed rate: 100 – 120 Kg/hectare.
Field Preparation
  • Fine-textured with less number of clods is considered ideal for the cultivation of soybean crop.
  • Land should be prepared and leveled with the following process:
one deep plowing with a moldboard plow
Then two harrowing or plowing with local plow.
  • Drainage channels should be prepared for removing excess water from the field to prevent waterlogging conditions in the field.
Method of Seeding
  • Soybean seeds should be treated with fungicides 24 hours before sowing.
  • Captan or Thiram @ 3gram per Kg  
  • Soybean seeds could be sown in lines. You can use a seed drill for sowing.
  • Plant to plant distance should be maintained and it should be between 4 to 5 cm.
  • seed could be sown 3 to 4 cm deep in the soil but sowing depth should not exceed 4 cm.
    soybean information
    Soybean plants in field

Nutrition requirement in soybean crop
  • Application of 15 to 20 tonnes FYM( Farm Yard Manure) or any organic manure per hectare before sowing is considered good for soybean growth.
  • N, P and K i.e. Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium requirement are as follow
20 Kg Nitrogen, 80 Kg Phosphorus, and 40 Kg Potassium per hectare. They could be applied through basal dressing.
  • 40 Kg of sulfur should also be applied in the form of gypsum @ 220 Kg/hectare.
  • However local soil testing and considered are preferred best to meet the nutritional need of a crop.
Water Management
  • The first application of water should be given just after the sowing of seeds of soybean.
  • Second irrigation should be applied 3 DAS ( Days After Sowing).
  • After that irrigate the field at an interval of 7 to 10 days in summer. During winter soybean crop does not need much water and you can irrigate the field at an interval of 10 to 15 days regularly.
Weed Management
  • Major weeds of soybean crops are:
Amaranthus spinosus, Brachiaria reptans, Cleome gynanadra, Phyllanthus niruri, Trianthema portulacastrum etc.
  • First few weeks, generally field gets weeds infestation that’s why it is very important to maintain field sanitization to control the growth of weeds.
  • Hand weeding could be practiced 30 to 45 DAS
  • Application of PRE Herbicides such as Fluchloralin, Acetochlor, etc, and PPI herbicides such as Trifluralin, Lactofen, Alachlor are efficient to control weed infestation in the field.
Harvesting
  • When pods become dry and leaves seems yellow in the entire field, the crop is ready to be harvested.
  • At this stage harvest the crop with the help of a sickle.
Yield
  • Average yield of 18 to 35 quintals/ hectare is obtained in soybean crops.
    soybean seed rate
    Soybean seeds


If you liked this article then share and follow my blog, to read about more oilseeds crop visit our detailed article on SUNFLOWER CROP AND ITS CULTIVATION.


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