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guava cultivation guide by agriculture review



Guava (Psidium guajava)

  • Centre of origin-Native plant in Mesoamerica and tropical America
  • Chromosome number-22
  • Family-Myrtaceae
  • Order-Myrtales
  • Kingdom-Plantae 
  • Guava is a very popular fruit.
  • Guavas are evergreen, shallow-rooted shrubs or small trees that grow to 33 ft in height, with spreading branches.
  •  It is a hardy crop(i.e. it can survive as low as 5°C)
  • Guava leaf extract may even help in treating acne.
  • Guava is one of the richest sources of vitamin-C.
  • It can also prevent the growth and development of cancer cells.
  • Enhances immunity, helps relieve in painful menstruation.
  • It is an ideal fruit for nutritional security due to its high nutritional value.
  • Major producing countries are China, India, Brazil, Spain, Mexico, Italy, Indonesia.
  • Guava production in 2019 in India is 18.8 million metric tons and in world 46.5 million metric tons.
  • Guava trees grow rapidly and fruit in 2 to 4 years from seed. They live till 30 to 40 years but productivity declines after the 15th year.







Area and distribution
  • The area under guava is about 0.15 million hectares. 
  • India ranks 1st in guava production followed by China. 
  • Although guava can be grown throughout India, it is most successful in Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh.
  • Approximately 501,600 acres are dedicated to the production of guava in India.







Soil Requirements
  • Guava is cultivated on varied types of soils-heavy clay to very light sandy soils.
  • Very good quality guavas are produced in river-basins.
  • It can grow well in the soil pH range of 4.5- 8.2. 
  • Maximum concentration of its feeding roots is available up to 25 cm soil depth.
  • The topsoil should be quite rich to provide enough nutrients for accelerating new growth which bears fruits.







Climate and temperature
  • Guava is successfully grown under tropical and subtropical climate.
  • The quality of the fruits is better in areas having distinct winters, therefore, guava grown near Allahabad is famous for the best quality fruits.
  • Although guava tolerates drought, protective irrigation facilities are required.
  • It grows best with an annual rainfall around 1000 mm restricted between June and September.
  • The optimum temperature for germination of guava is 20-28°C.
  • In winters the temperature must not fall less than 3°C (remember that guava is not tolerant to frost) 
  • Guava prefers full day sunshine and they are drought tolerant as well.




Guava propagation 
  • Guava can be propagated by seeds as well as by vegetative means.
  1. Growing guava from cuttings(vegetative propagation)
  • Guava can be obtained through layering, grafting, cutting and budding.
  • Its propagation by cuttings under ordinary condition is not successful.
  • It is only successful under intermittent mist conditions with the aid of rooting hormones like IBA and NAA.




2.Growing guava from seeds

  • Seed should not be in the dormant stage.    
  • Press one seed into the center of the pot with your finger. Be sure to cover the seed with a bit of soilless mixture. 
  • Water the seeds with a misting spray and place the container in a warm place with temperatures around(18°C.) or above. 
  • Transplant the seedlings to pots when they have 2-4 sets of leaves, then move them outdoors.



Spacing 
  • If spacing is 1.5 m × 3.0 m(plant × row) the farm can accommodate 2222 plants per hectare.
  • If spacing is 3.0 m × 3.0 m(plant × row) the farm can accommodate 1111 plants per hectare.
  • If spacing is 3.0 m × 6.0 m(plant × row) the farm can accommodate 555 plants per hectare.






Method of seeding
  • One year shoots are used for obtaining 20-25 cm of cuttings. These cuttings are dipped in 200 ppm of IBA solution for 24 hours and then planted into the soil beds.
  • Seeds should be planted at depth of 2× the width or diameter





Nutrition Value 
  • 100 gm. of guava can fulfil 14% of your daily fibre requirement. Guava is a good source of vitamins A and C, copper, folate, and fibre. It contains antioxidants such as beta carotene and lycopene, as well as iron, B vitamins, potassium, zinc, and phosphorus. 
  • Guava provides 68 kcal of energy.
  • Guava provides 9% of potassium.
  • Guava provides 26% of copper.




Application of nutrition to plants

  • A fertilizer dose of 600 g nitrogen and 400 g of K is necessary in the northern region it varies with the places due to surrounding environment and climatic conditions.


Irrigation requirements
  • Yearly average water requirement of guava was estimated to be 206 mm excluding effective rainfall. 
  • In an experiment, it is observed that a drip irrigation system provides greater yield than the ring basin method.
  • The lowest yield was observed in the ring basin irrigation system.





Weed management
  • We can use different cultural operation for controlling weeds i.e. Hand-picking, Burning, etc.
  • These methods are to be selected according to the place and availability of required material, area of orchard and so many different factors.
  • The chemical control of weeds in guava can be done by spraying of basal painting with ester formulations of 2,4,5-T is the best method of chemical control.



-Govind Gupta
 BSc Agriculture

                                                                                             

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